Introduction to Hotel
Long Answer Questions
- Draw an organization chart of a large hotel showing various departments with the position of the department heads. 
A hotel has different sections specialized for different functions. The hotel is known as a place to stay and food. To stay or for accommodation two departments Front office and House Keeping departments are responsible. For the purpose of production Food Production and Food and Beverage Service departments are there. In this way a hotel has four sections they are:
- Housekeeping: This section manages and maintain the cleanliness of the guest room and public areas like lobby, passage, flower arrangement etc. This unit is responsible to every aspect of a guest room that is to provide all the required materials in a room and maintain security.
- Front Office: This section is responsible public relation, reservation, registration, reception, maintain records and to collect dues. This unit receives the guest, do check-in and provide information and communicate with other concerned service units such as food and beverage, housekeeping, lobby, account, etc. This unit manages room keys.
- Food and Beverage Service: The main job of this department is to prepare food and serve the food. This job includes food. This job includes food planning and management of the groceries. They calculate the cost price and prepare menu and try to maintain cost control their service part includes maintaining hygiene. Their most important job includes serving the food beverage. This department is divided into two different jobs; Food Production and Restaurants.
- Food Production/ Kitchen: This department is responsible for production of food. It prepares the food and get ready to serve. They make purchase, specification, maintain stock, develop new idea find out the cost and develop menu. They must manage waste and maintain proper hygiene.
Above sections are supported by marketing, account, engineering, human resources departments.
- Define hotel and explain its types according to location. [3+7]
Ans: The word hotel originated from the word “hostel” and again the word hostel originated from the word “host”. The literal meaning of host is the guest. So hotel is the place which takes care of the guest. The dictionary defines hotel as “a place which supplies board and lodging” or “a place for the entertainment of the travelers”. Hotel provides accommodation meals and refreshments for those who reserve such facilities.
Hotels may be generally defined as “places which provide overnight, furnished, and serviced accommodation in return for payment”.
A hotel or Inn is defined by British Law as a “Place where a bona fide traveler can receive food and shelter, provided he is in a position to pay for it and is in a fit condition to be received”. Hence a hotel must provide food and beverage and lodging to travelers on payment and has, in turn the right to refuse if the traveler is drunk or in disorder or is not in a position to pay the money.
A hotel is an establishment, which supplies board and lodging by the intention to earn profit, where all persons are prepared to pay a stipulated price for their accommodation; that is furnished or a place to sleep or occupy. They occupy with or without contract as to duration but is should not be permanent. The Hotel may furnish quarters and facilities for assemblage, conference, provide supporting.
According to the World Tourism Organization tourist accommodation is used to denote the facilities operated for short term accommodation of guests, either with or without service against payment and according to fixed rates:
- Hotels: International hotels are the modern western style hotels located in cities and in tourist centers.
- Resorts: Rest, relaxation and entertainment are the objectives of a resort. The resort hotels are built near the sea, mountain or around the natural beauty. They give a special welcome and an atmosphere of informality. Their main emphasis is on recreational facilities. Their clients are mostly of considerably income, looking for relaxation and recreation. Resort hotels are located outside the crowded city area. Resorts are of various types like summer resorts, winter resorts, hill resorts, jungle resorts, all season resorts, health resorts, river side resorts, etc.
- Commercial/ Business Hotels: These hotels are located in the important commercial business or industrial towns and cities. Their main concern is the businessmen. They provide different services like business center, secretarial services, conference, etc.
- Residential Hotels: These hotels can be considered as apartment house complete with hotel services. These hotels are mostly located in big cities and operate on room only basis. Series and amenities provided in these hotels are like a home.
- Inn: These hotels are mostly located just outside the city limit. The clients of these hotels are those peoples who are looking for relaxation and recreation.
- Lodge: These hotels provide lodging facility only. They do not provide food. They are also known as guesthouses. Their main concern is the budget tourist and they are located in the main tourist areas.
- Motel: Motels or Motel hotel are made for local motorists or foreign tourists travelling by road. These types of hotels are mostly located along the high way and preferable at an important road junction. They are designed to serve the needs of motorists with parking, garage facilities, accommodation, restaurants, filling stations, repair services, etc.
- Downtown Hotel: It is located in the heart of the city within a short distance of the business center, shopping areas, public buildings, etc. Rates in these hotels are normally high. Normally business clientele prefer such hotels.
- Airport Hotel: As the name suggests, these hotels are situated at the airport and area ideal for transit passengers who have only few.
- Suburban Hotel: They are located in the suburban area.
As tourism is related with service/ facilities so different establishments provide different types of accommodation facilities and are known by different names. Capsule hotels are popular in Japan, Floating hotels are developed in the water, Village hotels are located in the village environment, Firm houses are located in the firm, etc. are also popular types of hotels.
- Draw an organization chart of a large hotel and explain briefly functional departments. 
There are various departments in a hotel. It depends upon the size and type of hotel. The hotel departments are classified as operational and functional departments. Operational departments are directly related to provide services to the guest they are Front Office, Housekeeping F and B Service and Production/ Kitchen. The functional departments are related to management function of the company. They are Management, Sales and Marketing, Human Resources, Accounts and Finance, etc. The size and number of functional departments depends upon the requirement of the company.
- Management: The management team is made of Chairman, Board of Governors/ directors, General Manager, Executive assistant managers and head of the departments. The management team is responsible for formulating plan policy, and program and implement the company rules and regulation.
- Human Resources: This department plans the required human resources and recruits manpower. Training and development, evaluation and reward, etc. is the responsibility of this department.
- Finance and Account Department: is responsible for cash management including credit collection. In a big organization the department may be managed by financial controller and divided into accountant, cashier and petty cashier.
- Sales and Marketing Department: It does promotional activities. Maintaining public relation, publication and developing brochures, booklets, etc. is also done by this department. They participate in different fairs, festivals, seminars and perform agreements with travel agents regarding rate and tariffs. In a large organization marketing department is a divided into Reservation and Convention. Other functional departments of a hospitality organization are security, engineering, procurement and store, etc.