National Policy, Plan and Strategies
National Health Policy 1991
The National Health Policy was adopted in 1991 (2048 BS) to bring about improvements in the health conditions of the people of Nepal through extending the access and availability of primary health care system. The primary objective of the National Health Policy is to extend the primary care system to rural population so that they benefit from modern medical facilities and the services from trained health care providers. The National Health Policy addresses the following areas:
Preventive Health Services
Priority is given to programmes that directly help reduce infant and child mortality. Services are to be provided in an integrated manner throughout the country national health systems network.
Promotive Health Services
The programmes that enable people to live healthy lives will be given priority.
Curative Health Services
Curative health services will be made available at all health institutions-central, regional, zonal and district hospitals; primary health care centres (PHCCs), health posts (HPs), and sub health posts (SHPs). Hospital expansion will be based on population density and patient loads. Mobile teams will be organised to provide specialist services to remote areas. A referral system will be developed to direct the rural population to well-equipped institutions.
Basic Primary Health Services
Sub Health Posts will be established in phased manner in all Village Development Committees (VDCs). One Health Post in 205 electoral constituencies will be upgraded in a gradual manner and converted to a Primary Health Care Centre.
Ayurvedic and Other Traditional Health Services
The ayurvedic system will be developed and other traditional health systems (such as Unani, Homeopathy and Naturopathy) will be encouraged.
Organization and Management
Improvements will be made in the organization and management of health facilities at the central, regional and district levels. This will include the integration of the district hospitals and the public health offices into District Health Offices.
Community Participation in Health Services
Community participation will be sought at all levels of healthcare through the participation of female community health volunteers (FCHVs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and leaders of various local social organizations. VDCs will provide sites for the location of SHPs.
Human Resource for Health Development (HRH)
Technically competent human resources will be developed for all health facilities. Training centres and academic institutions will be strengthened to produce competent human resources.
Resource Mobilization in Health Services
National and international resources will be mobilized and alternative concepts (such as health insurance, user charges, and revolving drug schemes) will be explored and affected wherever possible.
Private, Non-governmental Health Services and Inter-sectoral Coordination
The ministry of Health & Population will co-ordinate activities with the private sector, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and non-health sectors of GoN. The private sector and NGOs will be encouraged to provide health services to expand services and access.
Decentralisation and Regionalisation
Decentralisation and regionalisation will be strengthened; peripheral units will be made more autonomous. DHOs and DPHOs will have a prominent role in the planning and management or preventive, curative and promotive health services from district to village levels.
Blood Transfusion Services
The Nepal Red Cross Society will be authorized to conduct all programmes related to blood transfusion. The practice of buying, selling, and depositing blood will be prohibited.
Improvements will be made in the supplies of drugs by increasing domestic production and upgrading the quality of essential drugs though effective implementation of the National Drug Policy.
Health research will be encouraged for helping evidence based policy formulation and better management of health services.