MICRO PLANNING OF HEALTH PROGRAMME
- Planning is a systematic method of trying to ensure that the resource available now and in the future are used in the most efficient way to obtain explicit (clearly define) objectives.
- It is also called as deciding in advance.
Purpose/ Aims of Planning
He increasing demand for medical and health care services in the face of limited resources has brought out the need for careful planning and management of health services. Therefore planning is done:
- To match the limited resources with many problems
- To eliminate wasteful expenditure or duplication of expenditure
- To develop the best course of action to accomplish defined objectives.
Health planning is defined as “the orderly process of defining community health problems, identifying unmet needs, surveying of resources to meet them, Establishing priority goals that are realistic, reasible and projecting administrative action to accomplish the proposed program” By WHO
- Resources: manpower, money, materials, skills, knowledge, techniques, time etc.
- The resources can be wasted if there is no proper planning and management.
Micro planning is a comprehensive action planning procedure for producing development plans. An effective plan which includes resource requirements is essential to deliver a service that reaches resource requirements is essential to deliver a service that reaches everyone. The micro plan should be based upon a detailed knowledge of the local situation, including a map showing health facilities, population distribution, and the types of session needed to reach them. At the national level, there is a responsibility to ensure that the needed financial and human resources are available to districts and managed correctly, while the district must ensure that sufficient resources are available to health centers to deliver the service.
It is a method of systematically planning the technical details of personal health care in the developing world. In contrast to national health plans of the traditional kind-“macro plans”-those for health technology have to be minutely detailed. They have therefore been termed “micro plans.” (they have also been called health care packages, but this term ahs other usages.) A micro plan is defined as an integrated set of components (instructions for technologies equipment lists, teaching aids, evaluation instruments, etc.) prepared nationally to support a particular health care subsystem. The rationale for a micro plan is that the whole is more than the sum of its parts. A micro plan is itself a system in two senses. First, the technologies in a given micro plan need to be organized so as to support one another. Second, the components in a micro plan must themselves be integrated into a system. A micro plan can be applied to induce change and so improve the technical quality of existing services. It can also be used to train new workers. More importantly, it ties educational programs to service needs. Since the technology for dealing with disease is so similar all over the developing world, once a “master micro plan” for a particular subsystem has been prepared, it can be adapted readily to the needs of individual countries.
Example: Micro planning using reaching every district (RED) strategy to attain 100% coverage of immunization services