Life Components – Botany | Merofuture

Life Components

The life is existed in body of living bangs. The body is composed of cells. The cell is composed of various organic and inorganic molecules. They are called life components or life molecules or Biomolecules. The calledection of biomolecules in a cent called cellmles poal.

Types of life components

a.Organic molecules

i. Carbohydrate

ii. Protein

iii. Liquid

iv. Nucleic Acid

b. Inorganic molecules

i. H2O (water)

ii. Mineral (elements)

a. Carbohydrate:

The compound having carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen in which the radio of hydrogen O is usually 2:1. The general formula of carbohydrate is cn, H2n, On

Types of carbohydrate (3 Types)

  1. Monosaccharides:

The carbohydrate which contain 3 to 7 atoms of carbon one called monosaccharides. They are simplest carbohydrate. They are sweet of test. They are soluble in water. There are 5 types of monosaccharides.

a. Triose:

The monosaccharides having 3 atoms of carbon.

e.g. C3  H6           O3          (Only ceraldeyde)

b. Tetrose:

The monosaccharides having 4 atom of carbon.

e.g. C4  H8           O4          (Ergthrose)

c. Pentose:

The monosaccharides having 5 atoms of carbon.

e.g. C5  H10        O5          (Ribose)

d. Hexose:

The monosaccharides having 6 atom of carbon.

e.g. C5  H12        O6          (Glucose)

e.  Heptose:

The monosaccharides having 7 atom of carbon.

e.g. C7  H14        O7          (Sedoheptulose)

2. Disaccharides:

The carbohydrate which is composed of 2 molecules monosaccharides + monosaccharide = Disaccharide

O+O = O-O (Glycosidic bond)

Glucose + Glucose – Mattes

Glucose + Glucose – Loctoise

Glucose + Glucose – Sucrose

The carbohydrates formed by 2 to 10 molecules of monosaccharides are called oligosaccharides.

3. Polysaccharides:

The carbohydrates which are formed by number of molecules of monosaccharides are called polysaccharides. The polysaccharides are monomer of polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are not sweet in taste. Polysaccharides are insoluble in water.

e.g. cellulose, starch, glycogen.

Function of Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates are main source of energy.
  • 1 gm carbohydrate can presence 4.5 kcal energy.
  • Carbohydrates are reserue food starch glyeose.
  • Cellulose forms cell wall.
  • Lactose forms milk.
  • Pentose sugar forms (DNS/ RNA)
  • Carbohydrates forms plasma membrane.
  • Glycoprotein (carbohydrate + protein) acts as antibody.

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