Hotel Management Long Questions Answer notes of Chapter 5 Food Production Department complete questions answer notes. Hotel Management grade 11 all questions answer.
Long Questions Answer
1. Name various methods of cooking with 2 examples of dishes for each method. 
The process of cooking requires the transfer of heat energy to the food by conduction, convection or radiation. The cooking methods can be divided into two categories Moist heat media and Dry heat media. The moist heat media includes boiling, blanching, poaching, stewing. Dry heat media includes different methods where water is not used and not added, they are oven roasting, spit roasting, grilling, saute, shallow frying, deep frying, baking, etc. The combination media of moist and dry heat is braising.
1. Boiling: To cook food in boiling water or stock is ‘boiling’ method of cooking. Vegetables grown above the ground are cooked in boiling salted water and vegetables grown below the ground are started in cold salted water with the exception of new potatoes and new carrots. Dry vegetables are started in cold water. Meats should be strongly boiled at first then the heat reduced and allowed to simmer. Only just sufficient liquid should be used to cover the food to be cooked.
2. Blanching: Food is blanched by placing in boiling water for a short period of time, and then refreshed in cold water. The purpose of this process is to destroy the enzymes, which are responsible for discoloration, and also to prevent loss of nutrients especially Vitamin C. Chefs also use this method of cooking for bones and meat so as to remove unpleasant smell, impurities as to seal the surface to prevent loss of juices and nutrients. Examples of food items that can be blanched are bones, green leafy vegetable, poultry, meat, etc.
3. Poaching: Poaching is cooking in small amount of liquid (water, stock, syrup, milk) without bubbling. It is a gentle cook at a temperature range ust below the boiling point 75°C-85°C. Fish, fruits and eggs are poached.
4. Steaming: Steaming is cooking by water vapor. Steaming preserves all nourishment and flavor is in the food and cannot be over cooked.
5. Stewing: This is a very gentle method of cooking in a closed using only a small quantity of liquid. As the liquid is not allowed to boil during cooking and food should never be more than half covered with the liquid.
6. Braising: This is a combined method of roasting and stewing in a pan. The meat is fried on all sides and then stewed in stock, sauce or gravy. The flavouring and seasoning are then added.
7. Roasting: Roasting is cooking by using fat. This method is recommended for quality meat. There are different ways of roasting, such as Oven Roasting, Spit Roasting, Pot Roasting, Tandoor Roasting.
8. Grilling: Grilling is the fastest dry heat method of cooking by infra-red waves or on grill bars heated by charcoal. The different methods of grilling are Grilling under the heat/ salamander, Grilling over the heat, and Infra-red grilling.
9. Frying: This is the most popular method of cooking as this is the quickest method of cooking food. In this system food is placed or immersed in oil or fat at a sufficiently high temperature.
10. Baking: Baking is cooking of food by the action of dry heat by the help of dry steam which arises from the food in an oven. For example of food items that can be cooked are fish, breads, pastries, cakes, etc.
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2. Draw a neat organizational chart of kitchen development of a hotel, show the sections and write the job responsibilities of Executive Chef. [5+5]
Executive Chef (Chef de Cuisine): He is a person in authority and responsible for the kitchen and for the welfare of the establishment. He is also known as commander of the kitchen as he is the key man of the food production management. In a large traditional establishment the executive chef is a member of the management team and his work is of an administrative nature. The exact description of his/ her job will vary according to the size and type of establishment. In small units the term “Working Head Chef” may be used to describe his/ her involvement in administrative work and active culinary duties carried out by the head chef.
A permanent standard of quality should be his aim. For this purpose he should have trained and disciplined staff. His/ her staff must feel the weight of his authority and follow the strict discipline. In general his/ her job includes:
- Ensuring that the food – cost percentage are kept at the desired level. He must calculate the cost and benefit.
- Updating the menu and recipe in co-ordination with the Food and Beverage Manager.
- Compiling new menu items according to availability of stock, current trends, season, customers needs, etc.
- Ensuring the smooth functioning of kithen.
- Ensuring the quality of food.
- Determining portion size.
- Organising department training program for the maintenance of the highest professional standard.
- Plan the employing new staff, retirement, leave and dismissing staffs.
- Holding regular meetings with section heads to ensure all departments, units should function effectively with efficient operation and co-operation.
- Preparing of standard purchase specification.
- Checking storage receiving area for quality of food purchased.
- Ensuring the standard hygiene & sanitation within the kitchen area.
3. Explain the causes of food poisoning and its control measures. 
Any food which is infected by bacteria, toxin, chemical shustance and poison is termed to be contaminated food. Such food should be considered not fit for human consumption. People are more responsible to contaminate food with their hands, sneezing, coughing, so personal hygiene is most essential for protecting food from poisoning.
Cause of Food Poisoning
The most common cases of food poisoning are caused by bacteria. Since they are found everywhere food handlers should pay more attention to good personal hygiene. But some food poison is natural or due to the nature of the chemical. Sometimes people eat poisonous plants unknowingly and get sick.
1. Bacteria: The most common cases of food poisoning are caused by bacteria.
2. Natural: Certain fish and plants are naturally poisonous such as mushrooms.
3. Chemical: Chemical in water, cleaning materials, cause illness. The pesticides or poisons used in fruits, vegetables causes illness in human beings. The chemical color used in traditional food preparation is also harmful.
4. Metallic: Lead, zink, copper pans should be correctly used and never used for storing food. As it can cause reaction of food an will be the reason of food poison. Mercury is another poisonous metal and should be handled very carefully.
Raw food, particularly red meat and poultry get polluted most quickly. The special care must be taken to high-risk foods. Equal attention must be given to the equipment as contamination is transformed through pots and pans and through different types of equipment used in kitchen. Defrosted poultry and meat must not be allowed to be contaminated by wiping cloths, pots and pans.
Dust and soil are the other source of contamination. Raw and prepared food must be well protected from dust. Soil on raw vegetable must be removed. The vegetable must be washed thoroughly. In many places even water we use are not up to the quality. It is better to add iodine or potash in the cleaning water or to dip the vegetable in the iodine or potash water for half an hour.
- Protect food from flies, cockroaches and other small insects as they are the sources of contamination.
- Regular inspection of slaughter houses.
- Care in disposing of waste water and chlorinating of water.
- Proper thawing and cooking.
- Avoid drinking/ serve raw milk, raw meat, fish and shelfish.
- Proper storage, cooking of “high risk” food.
- Avoid cross contamination. Do not mix cooked and u-cooked food. Separate raw and cooked food during preparation and storing.
- Check canes, date and if any damage.
- Practice high standard of hygiene.
- Use smaller joints of meat when cooking.
- Through cooking and rapid cooking.
- Store at appropriate temperature.
- Avoid handling cooked food with bare hands. Practice good personal hygiene.
- Cover all cuts with waterproof dressing.
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