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Functions and sources of carbohydrate | Hotel Management | Grade XI

Chapter 5

Food Production Department (Kitchen)

Short answer questions

  1. Explain the Functions and sources of carbohydrate

Ans: Carbohydrates are the source of energy needed for our body muscles, brain and nervous system. The function of carbohydrates is to provide with most of its energy a body needs. There are three types of carbohydrates; sugar, starch and cellulose.

Sugar: Sugars are the simplest form of carbohydrate and the end products of the digestion of carbohydrates. They are absorbed in the form of glucose and provide heat and energy.

There are several kinds of sugar:

Glucose: found in the blood of animals and in fruits and honey

Fructose: found in fruit, honey and cane sugar

Sucrose: found in beet and cane sugar

Lactose: found in milk

Maltose: produced naturally during the germination of grain.

Starch: is composed of a number of glucose molecules (particles) and during digestion starch is broken down into glucose. Starch is presented in the diet through the following food:

Whole grains: rice, barley, ray, oat, etc.

Powdered grains: flour, cornflower, grounded rice, arrowroot, etc.

Vegetables: potatoes, parsnips, peas, beans, etc.

Fruit: bananas, apples, cooking, pears, etc.

Cereals: cornflakes, shredded wheat

Cooked starch: cokes, biscuits

Pastas: macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli

Cellulose: it is the coarser structure of vegetables and cereals which is not digested but is used as roughage in the intestine. It is often referred to as dietary-fiber.

  1. Explain the types of Kitchen.

Ans: The division, specialization, type of a kitchen is based on the type, class, service and size of the establishment. The kitchens are known by different names as per their functions and style of management, such as:

Cold kitchen: In this kitchen cold food such as cold salads, sandwich, etc. are prepared.

Specialized Kitchen: These kitchens are known by the type of food they prepare like Italian, Chinese, Indian, Continental, Nepali. This kitchen prepares hot dishes.

Fast-food Kitchen: In this kitchen food are pre-prepared or kept ready to be prepared so it will be possible to service very quickly.

Temporary Kitchen are the moving or outdoor kitchen.

Fixed or Permanent Kitchen are regular kitchen as in hotel and restaurant.

Pastry/ Bakery Kitchen where pastry and Bakery (ice-cream, cakes, breads, pies etc.) are prepared.

In terms of management kitchen is organized in three different ways:

Central Kitchen is known as conventional kitchen. This type of kitchen is usually located at the central part of hotel where overall sequences of receiving supply, storing preparing, cooking, serving and cleaning, etc. are managed. Technically this type of kitchen is known as the ‘main kitchen’. The supporting departments such as pastry, butcher, cold kitchen, store, stewarding are housed on the same level as the kitchen for easy accessibility. Wide varieties of food items are prepared in the same kitchen.

This type of kitchen is usually feasible in a small establishment. Here staffs have the advantage of moving from one department to another by enabling a better staff relationship.

Satellite Kitchen: in this type of kitchen management food is pre-prepared separately in different kitchen. This type of kitchen is suitable for large and modern establishments with many outlets serving different types of foods. The focus here is to have each preparation department specializing in certain products, and usually serves pre-prepared items as fast food.

Combined Preparation Kitchen: In this type of kitchen management of different kitchen operating separately share the common kitchen. The satellite kitchens also may depend upon the main kitchen for various other things such as sauce, stocks, gravies, pastas, etc. This type of kitchen design and management is suitable for a medium size establishment.

  1. Write short notes on milk and milk products.

Ans: Milk is a white opaque nutritious liquid produced by mother animals to feed their young. Milk is obtained from cows, buffaloes, yaks, goats and ewes, camel, etc. For commercial purpose many animals are high breed for better yield. The composition of milk varies according to the type and breed of animal, its health, and the diet on which it has been reared. Nutritional values obtained from milk are protein, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamin A, B, C and D.

Milk Products

  • Cream (Crème): This is concentrated milk fat, skimmed from milk. Cream must contain at least 18% of butter fat.
  • Butter: Butter is produced by churning the cream of milk. Cooked and purified butter is known as Ghee, which is more popular in India and Nepal. It is easier to preserve and has long life compared to butter.
  • Cheese: Cheese is popular food product made from milk. It contains protein, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins and water. Therefore, it is an excellent body building, energy-producing food.
  • Yoghurt is food prepared from milk fermented by the action of bacteria.
  1. Write short notes on satellite kitchen.

Ans: The kitchen is the place where food is prepared. In a hotel or in restaurant a special room in used for food preparation and is known as kitchen. In outside catering it is a place assigned for food preparation. Kitchen is the central point of activities in all restaurants and hotels where food is prepared. It is the heart of hotel.

In terms of management kitchen is organized in three different ways one of them is satellite kitchen.

In Satellite Kitchen type of kitchen management food is pre-prepared separately in different kitchen. This type of kitchen is suitable for large and modern establishments with many outlets serving different types of foods. The focus here is to have each preparation department specializing in certain products. For example: to manage one kitchen for Indian food and other for China food and one for continental food.

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