Food Production Department (Kitchen)
Short answer questions
- Define the Accompaniments
Ans: Accompaniments are generally flavored food or sauces offered with specific dishes. In most cases they are an integral part of a dish and is always served from the kitchen. Appropriate accompaniments enhance the flavor of a dish by providing a balance or contrast to its taste, for example, rich food may attain a balance with accompanied appropriate sauce or the way taste of bland food may improve when accompanied by a pickle or chutney. If accompaniments are matched correctly with a dish it brings about a little extra appreciation of the mean and adds to the dinner’s delight.
- Define the Dressing.
Ans: A dressing is usually served with all types of salad. It adds flavor, provide food value, helps in digestion, improve palatability and appearance. It may be a liquid or semi-liquid form, and a mixture of oil vinegar, seasoning, eggs and cream, etc. The basic dressings are mayonnaise, vinaigrette, acidulated cream, yogurt, French, lemon dressing etc.
- Explain the Raising agents
Ans: Raising agents are those materials which are used during the food preparation that increase the surface area by creating gas –bubbles, puffing-up, increasing the volume and making it light. It increases the size, and food becomes soft and spongy. It must be used in perfect quantity to get the desirable result and test of the food.
The raising agents
Different methods and techniques are used for raising food items.
- Air: as a raising agent.
- Water vapor: as a raising agent.
- Physical agent: Whisking and beating the flour, rubbing fat in to flour, whisking or beating eggs, etc. can be used as raising agent.
- Yeast is a living thing or microorganism. It requires food, moisture, warmth and air for its growth. The temperature is C and is destroyed at over It contains vitamins B and therefore helps to build and repair the body tissue and provides protection. In the market it is available as fresh or dried. It changes sugar to carbon dioxide, so that the dough, in which it is generated, is aerated. Yeast is used in pastry items such as bread, dough, bun, etc.
- Baking powder: is a chemical raising agent made of sodium bicarbonate and cream of tartar. By the help of moisture and heat it produces carbon dioxide gas. It must be stored in airtight containers and should not be kept for too long.
- Explain the Culinary.
Ans: Culinary is the art of preparing and cooking food. It includes knowledge of the science of food and understanding of diet and nutrition. Generally, in hospitality it is understood a kitchen management. A kitchen is the well-designed area for food preparation.
- Explain the Balanced Diet.
Ans: Balance diet is a diet that contains adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for healthy growth and activity. It is a healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: adequate fluid, adequate essential amino acids from protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and adequate calories. The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods. A healthy diet supports energy needs and provides for human nutrition without exposure to toxicity or excessive weight gain from consuming excessive amounts. A balance diet minimize the health risks.
Basic rule of balance diet is to eat roughly the same amount of calories that your body is using. A healthy weight is a balance between energy consumed and energy that is ‘burnt off’. Here are some basic guidelines of balance diet.
- Increase consumption of plant foods, particularly fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts.
- Limit intake of fats.
- Limit the intake of granulated sugar.
- Limit salt/ sodium consumption from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized.
- Give importance to vitamins and certain minerals.
- Avoid poisonous and carcinogenic substances.
- Avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens such as tapeworm eggs.
- Explain the Aim and objective of cooking.
Ans: Culinary operation of subjecting food to the action of heat is cooking. It is an art of application of heat to prepare food. The objective of cooking is to bring chemical and physical change in food to make it a complete dish. It makes food eatable, improves its flavor or makes it easier to digest. Cooking also makes eye appealing, creates an appetite, makes food digestible and kills harmful bacteria. While cooking more than two ingredients of food commodities are combined.
In hotel industry cooking food includes from preparation to presentation. It includes purchasing, receiving, handling and processing and finally presenting the dish to the customer.
Cooking will bring different types of changes to the food:
Chemical changes: Through softening coagulation, swelling or dissolving, food becomes either edible (rice, floor) or easier to digest. By cooking, the collagen in meat is destroyed, which makes it tender. By cooking the cellulose fibers of vegetables are also softened. The protein of fruits is released and starch increases in volume by cooking.
Change in appearance: Cooking and preparations change the appearance of the food and becomes more appetizing. For example, the browning by grills and ovens, the glazing of vegetables, the caramelization of sugar, etc. change the appearance of the food.
Development of aroma and flavors: The taste of the basic ingredients is improved by cooking when we add extra flavors, condiments, herbs, wine, etc. Reducing liquid by cooking gives a more pronounced flavor, and marinating food adds flavor before cooking.
Elimination of the harmful bacteria and parasite, which are destroyed by heat, particularly through boiling.
- Define the Carbohydrate
Ans: Carbohydrates are the source of energy needed for our body muscles, brain and nervous system. The function of carbohydrates is to provide the body with most of its energy. There are three types of carbohydrates; sugar, starch and cellulose.
Sugar: Sugars are the simplest form of carbohydrate and the end products of the digestion of carbohydrates. They are absorbed in the form of glucose and provide heat and energy.
Starch: is composed of a number of glucose molecules and during digestion starch is broken down into glucose.
Cellulose: It is the coarser structure of vegetables and cereals which is not digested but is used as roughage in the intestine. It is referred to as dietary-fiber.
- Explain the Personal hygiene
Ans: Personal hygiene is very much important for a hospitality business specially working in the kitchen as it affects not only the individual person himself but the area surrounding him. The appearance of staff reflects the standard of the establishment in the eyes of the public. Self-respect is necessary in ever food-handler because a pride in one’s appearance promotes a high standard of cleanliness and physical fitness. Cleanliness itself starts with people and good personal hygiene habits. These factors will determine a major cause of potential contamination.
Germs or bacteria are to be found in and on the body and they can be transferred on to anything with which they come in contact. Personal cleanliness is essential to prevent germs getting on to food. Persons suffering from ill health or who are not clean should not handle food.
A kitchen staff must have clean hair, manicure finger nails, clean hands and feet and must ensure that no body or mouth odor is present.