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What is Firmware ? – Computer Information | Merofuture

What is ROM?

Ans: ROM stands for Read Only Memory. ROM are mostly used to store firmware. ROM are non-volatile memory data stored in ROM can or can’t be changed.

Firmware

Firmware is a program that is stored in an IC.

BIOS

BIOS stands for basic input output system BIOS is a kind of software that is written in an IC. BIOS is stored in CMOS chip. BIOS is also called as ROM BIOS.

Types of BIOS

  • AWARD BIOS
  • AMI BIOS
  • DHDENIX BIOS

Function of BIOS

  • Loads OS
  • Detects Hardware
  • Generates form code
  • Saves date & time

How to enter BIOS

  • Restart the computer
  • As soon as computer restarts keep pressing following keys: F2/ Del/ F4/ F12/ F1

Inside BIOS

  • Standard CMOS setup
  • Advance CMOS setup
  • Power management setup
  • PIC/ Play and play setup
  • Advance chipset setup
  • Peripheral setup
  • CPU configuration
  • Auto detect hard disk
  • Change user password
  • Change supervisor password
  • Auto configuration with optimal settings
  • Save setting and exit
  • Exit without setting (ESC – Quit (selection))
  • F10 – save and exit setup (shift + F12 = change colour)

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Secondary memory

  • CPU doesn’t access directly
  • Slower than primary memory
  • Larger storage capacity
  • g. hard disk, flash drive, optimal drive, CD/ DVD, permanent memory, non-volatile.

Hard Disk Drive (HDD) Magnetic:

Hard disk is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using rapidly disk coated with magnetic materials. Hard disk is capable of storing large amount of data. Hard disk is used for installing OS, application software and other information.

Parts of Hard Disk Drive

  • Platters: Disk coated with magnetic materials which stores data.
  • Spindle: Which term the platters attached to it.
  • Read/ write head: Which reads and write data a platter.
  • The head Rotator: Ams that moves head around the platter.

Tracks and sectors

track

Tracks are concentric rings inside each platter. There are thousands of tracks in each platter. Each tracks are divided into a portion (port) called sectors. 512 bytes of data can be stored on each sectors. There are thousands of sectors on each track.

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