Concepts and Meaning of Tourism
Long answer questions
- Explain the evolution of Tourism.
Ans: Man has been travelling throughout the ages but every travel is not tourism. Travelling for the purpose of pleasure at leisure creates tourism. When people learn to differentiate between travel for work add travel for pleasure then tourism started. At the very beginning people were nomads. At the that time they were travelling for food. When man developed agriculture they travelled for exchange of their surplus. Slowly man developed trade and commerce and man started to travel for commerce and pilgrimage.
The travel before the tourism started can divided into three parts. They are commercial interest, religious purpose and to exploration. Development of trade and commerce developed trade centers, trade routes, inns, lodging centers. The economy supported the art and craft. At the same time people learned the hospitality and developed rich culture. There developed many cities. All this developed rich culture. There developed many cities. All this developments are supporting the present tourism. The other groups of travelers were pilgrimage. Their interest built temples, religious sites, pilgrimage route, festivals and cultures. The people travelling exploration explored natural wonders, tourism. One point should be noted down that there was travel but there was no tourism. Tourism started only when people learn to travel for pleasure at leisure time.
The Industrial Revolution brought great technological developments and also affected the social life. In one hand it increased the income and free time but at the other hand it increased their mental tension also. This brought the changes in travel pattern and behavior of the people in the western world. Many recreational centers were developed around the city limits. The simple inns were modified to cater new rich people for pleasure and recreation. Concept of modern hotels was started in London in 1744.
The introduction and development of railways made travel easy and cheaper. The first organized rail travel was organized by Thomas Cook in 1841. Once he booked railway seats, prepared a program and sold the tour program at especially reduced fares. He collected as many as 570 passengers. By the process of booking and selling of the tour programs he learned that Service is a product; it can be sold as product. People are ready to buy travel service. People do not mind paying money for relax, leisure and trust. He realized that selling of the service to the travelers can be a business – tourism business. He registered first travel agency of this world. Encouraged by the success of first venture Thomas Cook arranged package tours. He published guidebooks, periodical and Cook’s Excursionist and Tourist Advertiser to motivate people to involve in travel for pleasure. Thomas cook invented the idea of “Voucher” system. It created trust in tourism.
This great revolution in rail transport brought revolution in travel pattern and developed the concept of “comfort”. It increased the movement of the people. At the same time shipping technology also made a significant contribution to the development of travel and trade. The railways were responsible for inland travel, whereas ships crossed the boundaries and made possible the intercontinental travel.
Changes in mental attitude towards pleasure seeking, the realization of the importance of travel from working routine, and improvement in passenger transport system, etc factors produced a different type tourism know as “Modern tourism”.
Some of the features of modern tourism are:
- Globalization of the tourism.
- Marketing and operational agreement such as chain hotels and franchising
- Development and involvement of mass communication
- Development of new idea
- Involvement of new organizations
- Formation of Governmental, national and international associations and agencies.
Simple travel of one time developed into modern tourism. It was a slow and gradual process.
2. What is accessibility in tourism? Explain with the references of its conditions of Nepal.
Ans: Accessibility is another important component of tourism. It is the means by which a tourist can reach to the destination and participate with activities. The special feature of the tourism industry is the immovability of the product/commodity moves to the customer, but in tourism industry customer is required to be personally/physically presented at the point of service delivery. The accessibility is the possibility for general people.
Tourism is defined as “Sum of the total activities created by travel and stay of non-resident people”. So no travel no tourism. The possibility to travel is accessibility. Accessibility is related to the possibility to visit, to feel, to see or to watch the events, to realize or understand and experience. It is related with fulfilling the desire or wants created by attractions.
Accessibilities are understood as internal and external. Internal accessibility is the possibility of the guest to reach the different until, activity. It is the possibility to reach the places of attractions of a destination. This is the layout of a restaurant, hotel lobby management, or lay out of the sightseeing places. Possibility of travelling within a country or possibility of visiting all the places of attractions during the tour is the internal accessibilities. External accessibility is the connection of service with market. This is the connection of pipeline between Point of sale (POS) and Point of Service Delivery (POSD). This is the means how tourists arrive at the hotel, restaurant, arrive at a destination/country.
Accessibility means not to have any travel barriers. The travel barriers such as geographical travel barriers, and legal travel barriers, economic barriers, political barriers, cultural barriers, etc create impact on the tourist accessibility.
The travel supports increase the accessibility. They are physical transport system and middlemen. They are popularly known as channel members. Their role, supporting nature, location, relation with target market and with you, quality of service, efficiency, their working procedures, etc. increase the quality of accessibility. But their negative attitude creates travel barriers.
Transport is an important factor for tourism as tourism involves people moving out of their normal places of residence. Without transport there will be not tourism. Local travel does not create tourism and long distance travel needs transport. Travelers use different types of transports
Road Transport: Up to the beginning of the twentieth century almost all tourists were travelling by train or ship. The invention and development of the new technology during the First World War brought the private car and luxury coaches and changed the entire shape of tourist industry. The growth of private cars and luxury coaches caused decline in the use of railways. Subsequently with the growth of national and international highway system, people started taking long journeys by motor car and motor coach.
The motor car revolutionized the holiday habits. The good motor roads and road services are the important factors in the development of tourism. The luxury coaches and cross country buses added a new dimension in the accessibility and mobility of the people. Road transport includes: Private transportation, Public transportation, Overland/ Cross country coaches/ Camping coaches, Bike/ Mt. Bikes
Nepal is a mountainous country so land transport is a big problem and limited touristic places are connected by road transport.
Air Transport: The role of air transport is very important for the development of national and international tourism. Air transport plays a key role in the growth of international tourism, especially in a landlocked country like Nepal where road transport is very limited.
Rail Transport: The introduction of rail transport increased the opportunities to escape from the city life. The railways can be considered as one of the most powerful means for mass travel in modern world. Millions of passengers are carried all over the world by railway every day. Nepal is not able to develop rail transport.
Sea Transport: Sea transport has also made a significant contribution to travel and tourism. While railways and road transport were responsible for inland travel, the steamship crossed the boundaries and made intercontinental travel possible. Nepal being a land locked country sea transport in not possible.
In contest of Nepal accessibility is very limited as we have no airlines directed connected with Europe and USA, Australia which are the main tourism generating countries.
Nepal is a land locked country and our rivers are not good to use for water transport. Only Kathmandu is connected with international airport. At the same time we have internal accessibility problems.