CHILD HEALTH PROGRAMME
The National Immunization Program (NIP) is a high priority program (P1) of Government of Nepal. Immunization is considerd as one of the most cost-effective health interventions. NIP has helped in reducing the burden of vaccine preventable disease (VPDs) and child mortality and has contributed in achieving the millennium Development Goal on child mortality reduction (MDG4).
Currently NIP provides vaccination against TB (BCG), diphtheria-pertussis -tetanus-hepatitis B and heamophilus influenza (DPT – HepB-HiB), poliomyelitis (OPV) and measles throughout the country and JE vaccine in high risk post campaign districts through routine Immunization.TT vaccination is provided to all pregnant woman. The routine immunization services are provided through health facilities (Fixed clinic), private. NGO or INGO clinics, urban clinics, outreach session and mobile team in geographical inaccessible areas. All new vaccines are available in the markets, and the Government is keen to provide all available vaccines to reduce morbidity and mortality. Since last 10 years several new vaccines (hepatitis, Hib and JE) were introduced into routine immunization. In addition to routine immunization activities either to eradicate, eliminate or control vaccine preventable diseases (VDPs). The NIP has comprehensive multiyear (5 year) immunization plan (cMYP) which outlines goal, objectives activities with milestones and financial plan. The current cMYP runs from 2007-2011. NIP is also guided by NHSP 2.
Supplementary immunization activities were carried out to achieves or sustain eradication (polio), elimination (MNT) or control (measles and JE) of targeted VPDs. Several rounds of polio campaigns were carried out in high risk districts and JE campaigns in 4 districts in this FY. Only one wild poliovirus was detected in Rauthaut district with date of on set in August 2011.
The surveillance data on certain vaccine preventable diseases (AFP, Measles like illness, MNT, pneumonia for AI and AES) are reported through integrated Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system from weekly zero reporting sites supported through both the HMIS and integrated AFP network.
The goal of National Immunization Program is to reduce child morbidity, mortality and disability associated with vaccine-preventable diseases.
The objective of National Immunization Program are as follows:
- Achieve and sustain 90 percent coverage of DPT3 by and of all antigens.
- Maintain polio free status.
- Sustain MNT elimination status.
- Initiate measles elimination.
- Expand vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) surveillance.
- Accelerate control of either vaccine preventable diseases through introduction of new vaccines.
- Improve and sustain immunization quality.
- Expand immunization services beyond infancy.
- Accelerate control of other vaccine preventable diseases through introduction of new vaccines
- Improve and sustain immunization quality
- Expand immunization services beyond infancy
NHSP2 targets to achieve 85 percent of children under 12 months of age immunized against DPT3 and measles.
National Immunization Schedule
|Type of Vaccine||Number of Doses||Recommended age|
|BCG||1||At birth or on first contact with health institution|
|OPV||3||6, 10, and 14 weeks of age|
|DPT, HEP-B, Hib||3||6, 10, and 14 weeks of age|
|Measles||1||9 months of age|
|TT (School Immunization)||1||Grade 1 students|
|JE||1||12-23 months of age|
Reaching Every Districts (RED) strategies are one of the strategies to strengthen routine immunization.